Clenched Fist Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Clenched Fist Syndrome Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Flexion finger contractures are the common concern of clenched fist patients. This syndrome is considered a psychiatric disorder. There is no specific cause discovered so far. Some people consider it as a conversion disorder while others claim that it is a factitious disorder. Conversion disorder means that the symptoms are …

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Riedel’s Lobe Location, Symptoms, Complications, Surgery

The liver is considered the largest organ of the body. The size of the liver depends on various factors like body size, sex, age, and shape whether it is examined through imaging techniques or clinically. Due to some underlying conditions or anatomic variations, the liver can be palpable. Although these …

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Microsporidia keratitis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Microsporidia keratitis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

The causative agent of various diseases in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients is often microsporidia. Ocular microsporidiosis presents as systemic infection or is isolated. According to recent clinical research, ocular microsporidiosis is often diagnosed in immunocompetent individuals. Traumatic inoculation or contamination of soil and water causes the infection leading to Microsporidial …

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Centrocecal Scotoma Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

The visual field has a blind or blur spot called a scotoma. Other areas around this spot appear to be normal. The most affected sites of scotoma are either the periphery or center of the vision. Scotomas can occur in one or both eyes and they can be clustered, isolated, …

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Tailgut Cyst Location, Symptoms, Cancer, Removal

Tailgut Cyst Location, Symptoms, Cancer, Removal

Retrorectal cystic hamartoma which is often known as tailgut cyst is a rare abnormality that develops in the retrorectal space. According to the clinical studies they arise from the embryonic hindgut. Sometimes they are diagnosed during routine examination but mostly the majority of the patients show symptoms of tailgut cyst. …

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Axonopathy Types, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment | Myelinopathy vs Axonopathy

Axonopathy Types, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment Myelinopathy vs Axonopathy

Axonopathy is a main pathogenic driver or contributor to neurodegenerative disease manifestation. Both dendritic arbors and long axon processes should be maintained, as neurons have specialized anatomy. The neuron disconnects from its postsynaptic partners with the loss of the axon which ultimately eliminates the functionality of neural circuitry. The loss …

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Martius flap Surgery, Complications, Recovery Time, Success Rate

Martius flap Surgery, Complications, Recovery Time, Success Rate

Almost 90 years old, the modified lip flap Martius is still an integral part of the modern vaginal surgeon’s arsenal. Here we describe this versatile and straightforward technique, avoidance of pitfalls, its benefits and applications in vaginal surgery, and short and long-term results. They usually see the scar report of …

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