Axonopathy Types, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment | Myelinopathy vs Axonopathy

Axonopathy Types, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment Myelinopathy vs Axonopathy

Axonopathy is a main pathogenic driver or contributor to neurodegenerative disease manifestation. Both dendritic arbors and long axon processes should be maintained, as neurons have specialized anatomy. The neuron disconnects from its postsynaptic partners with the loss of the axon which ultimately eliminates the functionality of neural circuitry. The loss …

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Martius flap Surgery, Complications, Recovery Time, Success Rate

Martius flap Surgery, Complications, Recovery Time, Success Rate

Almost 90 years old, the modified lip flap Martius is still an integral part of the modern vaginal surgeon’s arsenal. Here we describe this versatile and straightforward technique, avoidance of pitfalls, its benefits and applications in vaginal surgery, and short and long-term results. They usually see the scar report of …

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Furlow Palatoplasty for VPI Recovery, Surgery, Procedure

Furlow Palatoplasty for VPI Recovery, Surgery, Procedure

Furlow Palatoplasty is also known as Furlow Z Plasty, is the procedure to treat a common complication in children named Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VPI). Before coming to the main topic, we will first discuss what Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VPI) is? When the average person is speaking, the soft palate called velum is lifted and is closed against …

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Hirayama’s Disease Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Life expectancy

Hirayama’s Disease Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Life expectancy

Hirayama’s disease is rare cervical myelopathy, and we can find it in young males. In 1959 Keizo Hirayama described this disorder as juvenile muscular atrophy of the unilateral upper extremity. Hirayama’s disease is a rare neurological disease. Its symptoms include weakness of the distal upper limb and initial progressive muscular …

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Uncal Herniation Symptoms, Causes, Types, Treatment

Uncal Herniation Symptoms, Causes, Types, Treatment

A herniation is an abnormal lump of an organ or other body part naturally or through a defect in a muscle, bone, or covering membrane. So we can say that the Uncal Herniation is a brain disease or abnormality in the brain but, before coming to its original definition, we’ll …

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Laugier Hunziker syndrome Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Laugier Hunziker syndrome Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Laugier- Hunziker syndrome (LHS) is an uncommon and scarce syndrome associated with the conditions of hyperpigmentation of oral mucosa (membrane lining in the inner side of mouth) and also the pigmentations of nails. The pigmentations are likely to be dark brown biconvex discoloration located majorly on the mucosa and beneath …

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Proximal junctional kyphosis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Proximal junctional kyphosis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

PJK is the most prevalent complication following a long instrumented posterior fusion in adult spinal deformity (ASD). Spine specialists defined the development of this abnormal kyphosis in various ways. The definition of PJK was first defined by Lee et al. and was commonly agreed upon by most specialists. According to …

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