Diseases

Microsporidia keratitis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Microsporidia keratitis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

The causative agent of various diseases in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients is often microsporidia. Ocular microsporidiosis presents as systemic infection or is isolated. According to recent clinical research, ocular microsporidiosis is often diagnosed in immunocompetent individuals. Traumatic inoculation or contamination of soil and water causes the infection leading to Microsporidial …

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Centrocecal Scotoma Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

The visual field has a blind or blur spot called a scotoma. Other areas around this spot appear to be normal. The most affected sites of scotoma are either the periphery or center of the vision. Scotomas can occur in one or both eyes and they can be clustered, isolated, …

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Tailgut Cyst Location, Symptoms, Cancer, Removal

Tailgut Cyst Location, Symptoms, Cancer, Removal

Retrorectal cystic hamartoma which is often known as tailgut cyst is a rare abnormality that develops in the retrorectal space. According to the clinical studies they arise from the embryonic hindgut. Sometimes they are diagnosed during routine examination but mostly the majority of the patients show symptoms of tailgut cyst. …

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Axonopathy Types, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment | Myelinopathy vs Axonopathy

Axonopathy Types, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment Myelinopathy vs Axonopathy

Axonopathy is a main pathogenic driver or contributor to neurodegenerative disease manifestation. Both dendritic arbors and long axon processes should be maintained, as neurons have specialized anatomy. The neuron disconnects from its postsynaptic partners with the loss of the axon which ultimately eliminates the functionality of neural circuitry. The loss …

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Martius flap Surgery, Complications, Recovery Time, Success Rate

Martius flap Surgery, Complications, Recovery Time, Success Rate

Almost 90 years old, the modified lip flap Martius is still an integral part of the modern vaginal surgeon’s arsenal. Here we describe this versatile and straightforward technique, avoidance of pitfalls, its benefits and applications in vaginal surgery, and short and long-term results. They usually see the scar report of …

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Furlow Palatoplasty for VPI Recovery, Surgery, Procedure

Furlow Palatoplasty for VPI Recovery, Surgery, Procedure

Furlow Palatoplasty is also known as Furlow Z Plasty, is the procedure to treat a common complication in children named Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VPI). Before coming to the main topic, we will first discuss what Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VPI) is? When the average person is speaking, the soft palate called velum is lifted and is closed against …

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Laparoscopic Sigmoid Colectomy Procedure, Steps, Port Placement

Laparoscopic Sigmoid Colectomy Procedure, Steps, Port Placement

Laparoscopic Sigmoid Colectomy is a surgery performed to treat or avoid diseases that occur in the intestinal colon. This surgery previously served as an open Colectomy. With the advancement of technology, doctors and surgeons prefer Laparoscopic Colectomy, which takes less time to heal and is not as painful as open …

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