What is Gibbus Deformity?
The Gibbus deformity refers to the collapse of one or more vertebrae, which leads to kyphosis. The gibbus deformity is often found in the upper lumbar and lower thoracic region. The disease can occur at any age but is most common in adolescence. The condition often develops due to tuberculosis osteomyelitis.
Gibbus Deformity Definition
The word “Gibbus” has been taken from the Latin language, which means hump. The gibbus deformity is the structural form of thoracolumbar kyphosis, which leads to the formation of a sharp curvature or angulation in the thoracic spine.
Gibbus Deformity Symptoms
The most common symptoms of the Gibbus Deformity are back pain and the pain, limited activity and mobility. In the case of severe Gibbus Deformity patients often experience fatigue, loss of sensation, lack of voluntary control on urination, pain in the neck, back, arm, and legs, numbness, and tingling sensation, which represents the severe collapse and destruction of the spine.
Gibbus Deformity Causes
The most common cause of the Gibbus deformity, which is a form of structural kyphosis, is Tuberculosis Osteomyelitis. Some other causes of the Gibbus Deformity are physical injury or trauma do the vertebrae, hereditary and pathological conditions. The causes of gibbus deformity can be congenital that is present since birth or acquired, which means developed postnatally. The congenital causes of the gibbus deformity are given below:
It is a bone growth disorder that hinders the change of cartilage into bone, particularly in long bones of arms and legs. The features associated with achondroplasia are dwarfism, microcephaly, limited range of motion at elbows, and small fingers.
· Congenital Hypothyroidism:
Congenital Hypothyroidism is the deficiency of thyroid hormone present at birth. It can occur due to any defect in the gland, thyroid metabolism, and iodine deficiency. Congenital Hypothyroidism can cause stunt growth, intellectual disability, and cretinism. Congenital Hypothyroidism was previously known as cretinism, which refers to the untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormone.
· Coffin-Lowry Syndrome:
Coffin-Lowry syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that is X-linked dominant. This syndrome is characterized by the abnormalities of the craniofacial area that is the head and face area, intellectual disability, stunt growth, skeletal and cardiac abnormalities, kyphoscoliosis, visual and auditory abnormalities, and large hands with short tapered fingers.
· Apert Syndrome:
Apert Syndrome is also known as acrocephalosyndactyly, which is a genetic disorder. This syndrome is associated with craniosynostosis, which is the premature closure of the skull bones. This hinders the normal growth of the skull, thereby affecting the shape of the craniofacial area that is the head and face.
The term Mucopolysaccharidosis is used for a group of genetic disorders. These include Hunter Syndrome, Hurler Syndrome, and Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome. In Mucopolysaccharidosis, the body is unable to metabolize the mucopolysaccharides now called the glycosaminoglycans, due to the deficiency or malfunctioning of the lysosomal enzymes. The patients with the Mucopolysaccharidosis often present with cardiovascular, central nervous system, ophthalmological, pulmonary, and musculoskeletal diseases. They also have a hearing impairment.
The acquired causes of gibbus deformity are given below:
· Compression fracture:
The compression fracture is also known by another name called vertebra plana. The compression fracture conditions that cause gibbus deformity are osteoporosis, spinal metastases, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Osteoporosis is also known as Porous bone, which is a bone disease. Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass and structural disintegration of the bone tissue, which leads to bone weakness and increases the risk of bone fracture. The spinal metastases are the involvement of the vertebral spine hematogenous spread of the metastatic cells. The Langerhans cells histiocytosis is a condition in which Langerhans cells, commonly known as immune system cells, are produced in excess and accumulate in the body.
Discitis is the inflammation of the vertebral disc space due to an infection. Discitis Is often accompanied by osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis is the infection of the bone. The gibbus deformity is often the result of pyogenic spinal osteomyelitis or tuberculosis osteomyelitis. Pyogenic spinal osteomyelitis is a severe, rare condition that is caused by a bacterial infection involving one or more vertebrae. The tuberculosis osteomyelitis is a condition that is secondary to the lymphohematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
· Scheuermann Disease:
Scheuermann’s disease is also known as Scheuermann’s Kyphosis. This self-limiting skeletal disorder is characterized by kyphosis in the back of the child that is the back is round and forms a curvature that looks hunched over.
Gibbus Deformity Treatment
The treatment of the Gibbus Deformity is usually done through antibiotics to fight the infection. The surgery is also performed to correct the posture and remove the curvature. The surgical techniques that are used are spondylodesis, posterior instrument, vertebrectomy, and interbody cage.