What is Brenner’s tumor?
Brenner tumors are a rare disease of the epithelial surface, more specifically ovary, but occur in other locations like testes. The development of solid, abnormal growth in the ovary. These tumors belong to a group of stromal tumors that lie in the class of ovarian neoplasm. Most ovary tumors are not cancerous (benign) in nature and do not spread to adjacent areas of the ovary. Still, only 2 to 5% can turn into cancer (malignant) or may extend too far beyond its original location (borderline). They were observed during a pelvic examination or at laparotomy. Brenner tumors are solid and pale yellow in appearance.
As with other tumors, they are also found in variable sizes, from 1 cm to 30 cm. Severity of the disease and way of treatment highly depends on the tumor’s size. Brenner tumors are more common in females but can be observed incidentally in males. It can grow in testes. Females older than the age of 50 after menopause are more at risk. Long-term outcomes are expected only if the Brenner tumor has not spread into the body’s local and more distant parts. If we studied the disease’s statistical analysis, it reveals that the specific number of individuals who got Brenner tumors isn’t known.
Nonetheless, they are viewed as uncommon and recorded for just 1-3% of every ovarian tumor. More than 95% of Brenner tumors are benign. The long term prognosis for people with cancerous or borderline Brenner tumors relies upon the malignancy phase when analyzed. The earlier the cancer is diagnosed, and the less it has spread, the better the result.
Brenner tumor Symptoms
Small, noncancerous tumors are asymptomatic. Large benign tumors show symptoms that may include pain in the one side or a wide feel of discomfort in the abdominal region, palpable mass, and postmenopausal females complain about bleeding from the vagina as the significant signs of Brenner tumors. In case of malignant tumor, abdominal swelling, and a problem with bladder control.
Brenner tumor Causes
The cause of Brenner tumors is still not known. But postmenopausal people are more at risk of it. In a female’s life, menopause is the time when her period stops. It generally happens, frequently after age 45. Ovaries quit producing the hormones estrogen and progesterone, and because of that, menopause occurs. Menopause is a condition when a woman has not had a period for one year. As most of the tumors don’t show symptoms, almost 90% of the ovary’s Brenner tumors initially diagnosed incidentally during surgeries of other diseases, in ultrasound, or during a pelvic check-up. Microscopic examination is performed via a surgical biopsy, in which a small piece of the tumor is taken for analysis. Specific microscopic findings and blood tests act as helpful tumor marker guides in diagnosis.
Brenner tumor Classification
WHO classifies the newly recognized variant of Brenner tumor. Fourteen uncommon Brenner tumors were discovered, from moderate to harmful ones, and were ordered into three classes addressing progressive epithelial irregularities. These include metaplastic, multiplying, and tumors of low malignant potential. Each tumor of these classes compares to a specific urothelial anomaly or neoplasm. A superior comprehension of the morphology and biologic conduct of abnormal sorts of the Brenner tumors can be considered typical through this grouping.
Brenner tumor Treatment
The treatment method depends on the extent of tumor spreads, cancer stage, location, and tumor size. Treatment of ovarian Brenner tumor is recommended through surgical removal of cancer. In malignant tumors, surgery may become a more extensive procedure because it includes removing the other surrounding organs along with the ovary. Other adjacent areas that may be necessary to remove along with ovaries include Fallopian tubes and the uterus. The resection procedure is named total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.
Surgical procedures are followed by radiation and chemotherapy. Surprisingly, the age of the women helps to decide the course of treatment. Women of postmenopausal age are gone through complete removal of ovaries, Fallopian tubes, and the uterus. In younger women, organs are tried to protect to preserve fertility and keep on working ovaries. Several case studies suggested that patients with benign Brenner tumors of the ovary with no other concomitant disease show a better long-term outlook. Chances of tumor recurrence after surgical removal is reported only in 28% of cases. In most of the issues, it is observed that the Brenner tumor does not recur, but few cases of tumor recurrence were reported.