Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Types, Treatment, Symptoms and Prevention.

Learn all about Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) Types, Treatment, Symptoms and Prevention.

The term sexually transmitted disease(STDs) means any illness that is transmitted from one person to another person via vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Some sexually transmitted disease may also be transmitted through injection or through breastfeeding. sexually transmitted diseases(STDs) are also known as  venereal diseases.All sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have sub-clinical or latent periods, and patients may be asymptomatic.

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) Types, Treatment, Symptoms and Prevention.

Symptoms of sexually transmitted disease(STDs)

Symptoms of sexually transmitted disease(STDs) have a range of signs and symptoms.Some of them are mentioned below

  • Sores or bumps on the genitals or in the oral or rectal area
  • Painful or burning urination
  • Discharge from the penis
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Unusual vaginal bleeding
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Rash over the trunk, hands or feet

Types of sexually transmitted disease(STDs)

There are about 20 different conditions that come under the category of sexually transmitted disease(STD’s). Some of these conditions have cardinal features while others remains asymptomatic or remains dormant,leaving the person unaware.All sexually transmitted disease(STD’s) have sub-clinical or latent phases that  play an important role in long-term persistence of the infection or in transmission of infection from one person to other person. Most commonly occurring sexually transmitted disease(STD’s) are

Herpes

Herpes also termed as Herpes Simplex Virus or HSV. There are 2 types of herpes which are responsible for infections of oral and genital regions.HSV-1 is responsible for oral infection or oral herpes while HSV-2 is responsible for genital infections.The most common symptom of both of these is blistery sores.There is no complete cure of herpes infection but medications can help to control outbreaks.

Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is a type of bacterial infection characterized by Purulent and profuse urethral discharge, especially in men, with dysuria, yielding positive smear.Gonorrhea most often affects the urethra, rectum or throat. In females, gonorrhea can also infect the cervix.It is transmitted during sexual activity and commonly occur in in the 15- to 29-year-old age group.The incubation period of this organism is usually 2–8 days.

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in united states.Chlamydia is a common cause of urethritis, cervicitis and post-gonococcal urethritis. Chlamydia affects both men and women and occurs in all age groups but it is most prevalent among young women.Diagnosis of chlamydia is made by nucleic acid amplification of urine or swab specimen.Treatment of chlamydia is not difficult but if it is left untreated it can cause infertility and pelvic inflammatory disease in women and sterility in men.

Syphilis

Syphilis is a bacterial infection usually spread by sexual contact.It is caused by Treponema pallidum that belongs to a class termed as spirochete, capable of infecting almost any organ or tissue in the body.Primary feature of syphilis includes presence of sores on affected area.This may be followed by fatigue, low grade fever, rashes, and muscle pains.Symptoms of syphilis may vary because it develops in stages.Most common mode of transmission is sexual contact (including oral sex) or via minor skin or mucosal lesions.

HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

HPV can cause variety of problems that ranges from minor problems to major illness like cancer. There is no complete cure of Human Papilloma virus but thanks to Human Papilloma virus vaccination  that can protect women against the types that cause 70% of all cervical cancer cases. HPV vaccination is also available for men to protect them from anal and penile cancers. infection is usually a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and is easily spread by having sex with an infected person.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

A person may remain asymptomatic for a long time even for as long as ten years after infection with Human Immunodeficiency(HIV).This asymptomatic condition may lead to a badly compromised immune system and causes AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). There is no complete cure of but but life span of patient can be increased by proper medication. people infected with HIV can live as long as people without HIV and will often die from conditions other than HIV.HIV test service is now available in many countries and now HIV kit test is also available.

Genital Warts

Genital warts are also named as condylomata acuminata.Most common places of genital warts are vulva, perianal area, vaginal walls and cervix.These are  caused by various types of the human papillomavirus(HPV). Genital warts can be extremely large and must be removed by a medical practitioner skilled in their removal. Most people are able to clear the virus that causes these warts.Two common conditions in which people have high risk to get involved in this problem are pregnancy and immunosuppression.

Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis also termed as trich.It is one of the most common cause of vaginitis.Trichomoniasis is caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis and is among the most common sexually transmitted diseases.It causes vaginitis in women and urethritis in men.  Symptoms of trichomoniasis includes pain, burning or itching in urethra (urethritis) or vagina (vaginitis). Diagnosis of trichomniasis includes a routine gynecologic exam and microscopic examination of cells from the vagina.Treatment of trichomoniasis is not difficult once it is diagnosed.

Hepatitis B and C

Hepatitis B and C are common in among all populations and spreading very rapidly.It is transmitted through sharing IV drug needles or during blood transfusion. B and C may also be transmitted via sexual activity that may result in to skin breakages and bleeding. There is a very effective vaccine available for prevention of hepatitis B.There is no vaccine for and Hepatitis C is even more strongly associated with than Hepatitis B. It is important to be screened if you think you may be at risk after sexual intercourse with a person infected with hepatitis C.Treatment of both hepatitis B and c is interferon which is widely available in all over the world and therapy of antiviral drugs like ribavirin.

Other sexually transmitted disease(STDs)

  • Candidiasis (yeast infection)
  • Chancroid
  • Crab Louse
  • Molluscum Contagiosum
  • Scabies
  • Systemic gonoccal infection

Treatment of  sexually transmitted disease(STDs)

sexually transmitted disease(STDs) caused by bacteria are generally easier to treat. Viral infections can be managed but not always cured.Moreover, the type of sexually  transmitted disease determines the treatment therapy.sexually transmitted disease (STDs) caused by virus is difficult to treat and sometimes it may lead to cancer if left  untreated.Drugs which are commonly used to treat sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are

Antiviral drugs

  • Acyclovir
  • Ribavirin
  • Famciclovir

Antibacterial drugs

  • Azithromycin
  • Metronidazole
  • Vancomycin

Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases(STDs)

The most reliable way to prevent STD’s is to abstain from sex. Another reliable way of avoiding STDs is to stay in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who is not infected.Moreover. proper vaccination and immunization is very important.Vaccines are available to prevent STD’s.When used properly, latex condoms provide the best protection against both pregnancy and STDs. It is important to note that hormone based birth control medications like the pill, patch, or ring, do not protect you from STDs. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) do not prevent  STDs.so, proper measures should be taken to avoid from STDs.

About Dr. Arslan Malik

Dr. Arslan Malik
Arslan Malik is noted health blogger, public health activist, aspiring dreamer and avid reader. With doctor in pharmacy, he has worked closely with various health organizations, multinational pharmaceuticals and community health programs. Beside his professional practice, he has an avid interest in writing and teaching Physiology and Medicines. He covers variety of topics from Nutrition and Natural Care to Diseases, Treatments, Drug Interactions, Preventive Care and Clinical Research.

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