What is Iliac Aneurysm?
A ballooning or bulging in the blood vessel wall is referred to as an aneurysm in medical terminology. It possesses the potential to rupture. A ruptured aneurysm produces internal bleeding and is typically fatal. An iliac aneurysm is a bulging and weakening of the iliac artery wall. In the pelvic region, the abdominal aorta splits into the common iliac arteries. They further divide into the internal and exterior iliac arteries. A big iliac aneurysm can rupture, causing life-threatening internal bleeding.
Degeneration of the iliac arteries, including the common, internal, and external iliac arteries, is mostly caused by aneurysms on their own or in conjunction with aneurysms in other big vessels, such as the abdominal aorta or the femoral artery.
Screening tests or other imaging procedures frequently lead to the diagnosis of iliac artery aneurysms (IAAs). Symptoms normally do not appear till the aneurysm is substantial and are mostly caused by compression of adjacent structures. An IAA’s risk of rupture increases with size, just like that of an abdominal aortic aneurysm.
An iliac artery aneurysm, also known as an IAA, is defined by a weakening and bulging in the wall of one of the iliac arteries. An iliac artery’s normal diameter is no more than 1.7 centimeters for men and 1.5 centimeters for women; if it is any larger, the artery is aneurysmal.
Iliac Aneurysm Symptoms
The majority (50%) of iliac artery aneurysms are asymptomatic. Aneurysms of the internal iliac artery are responsible for pelvic pain, rectal pain, arterioenteric fistulae with hematochezia, urethral obstruction with ipsilateral hydronephrosis, and aneurysm rupture.
In addition to dull and throbbing abdominal muscle pain, iliac artery aneurysms are also responsible for lower back and groin discomfort. A dissecting aneurysm is capable of causing sudden and severe pain that seems like a “ripping” sensation.
Be aware that tingling or numbness in conjunction with discomfort is most often a sign of inadequate blood flow. Blood can leak out of the arteries during dissection, which increases the risk of this happening by reducing the amount of blood that can flow through the body.
Other symptoms that are documented include gastrointestinal, urinary, and neurological issues. IAA is uncommon, but if a rupture goes untreated, it can be fatal.
Iliac Aneurysm Causes
Many different conditions can lead to aneurysms of the iliac arteries, including dissection, fibromuscular dysplasia, connective tissue disorders, atherosclerosis, and cystic medial necrosis.
The term “atherosclerosis” describes the condition in which the arteries that carry blood out from the heart become thick and stiff due to the accumulation of plaque. The composition of plaque includes fatty acids, cholesterol, calcium, and a variety of other chemicals. Reduced blood supply to the rest of the body can lead to a variety of other major health issues, like stroke, heart attack, and even death.
The abnormal creation of a tear on the interior wall of an artery is referred to as arterial dissection. An enlarged tear can cause a pouch to form, medically referred to as a “false lumen.” Blood clots or blood flow obstruction can form when blood builds up inside this pouch. This is a risk factor for stroke.
Disorders of the connective tissues
A connective tissue condition develops when the major proteins responsible for the strength of organs, arteries, skin, and bones are harmed. Vascular problems like aneurysms, ruptures, and aortic dissection happen when arteries are weak.
Fibromuscular dysplasia is characterized by enlargement and narrowing of the medium-sized arteries. Organs can undergo functional changes as a result of reduced blood flow when arteries are constricted.
Cystic Medial Necrosis
Cystic medial necrosis is a condition that occurs when the connective tissues of large arteries are damaged. Large blood vessels derive their shape and support from the muscle, collagen, and elastin that compose them; when any of these components deteriorates, the blood vessels are at risk of rupturing.
Iliac Aneurysm Rupture
A ruptured internal iliac artery (IIA) aneurysm carries a high risk of death, despite being uncommon. The aneurysm’s diameter affects its likelihood of rupturing. Although the likelihood of developing an iliac artery aneurysm is low, if one does, the symptoms and implications are often very serious. Iliac artery aneurysms that burst can be fatal if left untreated. In general, people who have untreated iliac artery aneurysms possess a poor prognosis for recovery. Morbidity and death rates are higher for those with iliac aneurysm rupture.
Iliac Aneurysm Repair
A life-threatening condition known as iliac artery rupture is mostly avoided with the use of a treatment known as iliac aneurysm repair. There are a few distinct varieties of iliac aneurysms, the most frequent of which are known as aneurysms of the common iliac artery (CIA) and those of the iliac branch. The repair can be performed through open surgery or using minimally invasive endovascular procedures, which include smaller incisions and faster recovery. A stent graft or embolization of branching arteries is often used in endovascular repair to block blood flow to the aneurysm sac. In addition, medications that lower cholesterol or blood pressure are often utilized as part of the treatment for this condition.