“Eikenella corrodens is a commensal gram-negative bacteria that is anaerobic, non-mobile and non-sporeforming bacillus that might have the pathogenic characteristics.”
It naturally exists in the oral flora of the human body as well as in some other organs such as genital and intestinal tracts. Upon triggering of its transmission, it starts proliferation and colonize in specified areas resulting in different kind of infections depending upon the site. The patients of cancer (specifically head and neck) are considered vulnerable for these infections along with diabetic patients and IV drug users. Any kind of injury that might have contact with the oral cavity may adopt the E. corrodens infections.
Initially, it was called Bacteroides corrodens during its first classification in 1958 by a scientist named M. Eiken and after that, it’s named changed to Eikenella corrodens. Traditionally, this flora is classified under the HACEK group of organisms.
Eikenella Corrodens Transmission
- corrodens is known as a natural inhabitant of the human flora found in the oral cavities, intestinal tracts, and genital tracts. Its transmission is opportunistic based on a few conditions that may lead to the formation of its colonies at affected places. These conditions may include;
- Damage to the mucosal linings of specified organs
- Any history of illness that compromised the immune system resulting in the drainage of antibodies form the body
In these situations, E. corrodens senses the opportunity through the signaling molecules called auto-inducers (AIs) and invades the affected parts and establishes its colonies by the activation of the LuxS gene. Due to this characteristic of colony establishment, this flora maintains its population size and density that decides its spread and severity of the infection.
Eikenella Corrodens Infection
- corrodens is a common inhabitant of natural human flora existing in the oral cavity. But it has been stated that this flora has some pathological features which can lead to the adoption of some serious infections. Either the infection is caused independently by this flora or it might act as a participant in the mixed infections.
- Damage to the gingival or mucosal lining of the oral cavity can lead to exposure to this flora resulting in infections. As well as these are responsible for the endocarditis (IE) which is generally triggered by the bad oral hygiene or manipulated periodontitis. Other infections may include; osteomyelitis, meningitis, and empyema.
- Infections caused by it may take the time of more than a week to clinically present its symptoms after the injury or violent exposure to this bacteria.These symptoms may include; inflammation, chills, high-grade fever lasting longer, localized tenderness, foul odor, and edema.
Eikenella Corrodens Periodontitis
- corrodens, a gram-negative bacteria is commonly found in the oral cavities where it mainly inhabitant in the periodontis (generally called as dental plaque). They are found to be living in the oral cavities of the periodontally healthy population. As this flora is naturally present in the human body so the appearance of its pathological characteristics in the oral cavity or extra-oral cavities is not established that well.
Especially the link between the presence of this flora and the adoption of periodontitis caused by it is yet very unclear. However, it is reported that it might have pathological features which it either present as an independent body or in some case it may appear as a participating entity in the mixed infections. These features may include;
- Variable colony morphology, biochemical and serologic reactivity
- Outer membrane protein and lipopolysaccharide structure related marked phenotypic marked
- Total genomic DNA showing diversity in the restriction patterns
The proper diagnosis using strain-specific nucleic acid probes is required to announce E. corrodens as the causative agent.
Eikenella Corrodens Treatment
The treatment for Eikenella Corrodens caused infections depends upon the severity of the disorder as well as the condition of the patient. Generally, two treatment options are suggested by the professionals which include the following;
Medication therapy:Usually the antibiotics are recommended for these infections which may include; penicillins, cephalosporins, or tetracyclines. As well as these are considered to be highly vulnerable to the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin) but the adequate in-vivo shreds of evidence for this class have not been provided yet.
Meanwhile, it is stated that this bacterial body is highly resistant to the administration of a few drug products involving macrolides (for example erythromycin), metronidazole and clindamycin.
Surgical therapy: Depending upon the severity of the infection, some cases may require a surgical procedure. This technique involves the surgical drainage from the affected area and afterward, the patient is recommended for the antibacterial therapy for the prevention of recurrence of the infection. Patients are suggested to continue this medication therapy until the full recovery is achieved.
Majorly, the drug user patients involved in the licking of their needle before injecting it to the skin may adapt the mixed infections resulting in the seriousness of the infection which requires the need for surgical drainage.