Cutibacterium Avidum Treatemnt, Susceptibiity, Gram Staining

Cutibacterium (previously Propionibacterium) species are gram-positive, anaerobic, nonsporulating bacilli that are often regarded as skin commensals. They are mostly nonpathogenic and are frequently found in blood and other body fluid cultures as contaminants. These species need 6 days to grow in culture.

Cutibacterium species, which are part of the coryneforms (Actinobacteria) genus, are being investigated extensively due to their link to acne vulgaris. Cutibacterium species can also cause endocarditis, post-shoulder surgery infections, and neurosurgery shunt infections.

Cutibacterium avidum is a skin microbiota Gram-positive anaerobic rod. Humid skin and pilosebaceous follicles in the axilla, folds, and perianal region are where it grows. This microorganism’s infections are generally linked to surgery, foreign bodies, and malignancies. 

The commensal component of the skin microbiota known as Cutibacterium avidum is now recognized as a pathogen that can cause infections at the site of surgery. Cutibacterium avidum, a skin commensal, now causes significant surgery sites and spontaneous infections. If there are clinical indicators of infection, they cannot be frequently ignored without further examination.

Cutibacterium Avidum Treatemnt, Susceptibiity, Gram Staining

Cutibacterium Avidum Treatment

A well-known skin commensal is Cutibacterium avidum. This little-known microbe, however, is capable of acting as a pathogen when bacterial seeding has occurred. It is classified as opportunistic and can cause infections at either the superficial or deep/invasive levels. It is possible for it to cause a wide variety of infections, some of which include, but are not limited to, infective endocarditis,  skin abscesses, device-related infections, and breast infections. C. avidum possesses a very distinct biological niche from the rest of the genus since it is typically not found in dry, exposed places but rather in the axillary region or damp areas, and as the number of microorganisms increases in the body during puberty.

Infections caused by Cutibacterium avidum are treated with a mix of medicinal and surgical methods, such as synovectomy or complete revision in addition to antibiotic medication. Antibiotic treatment typically lasts three months, starting with two to six weeks of IV treatment. Erythromycin is ineffective in treating acne brought on by C. avidum, while tetracycline and benzoyl peroxide are effective. 

Cutibacterium Avidum Susceptibility

C. avidum is most susceptible to a wide variety of antibiotics which mostly includes:

  • Penicillins.
  • Cephalosporins.
  • Carbapenems.
  •  Clindamycin. 

There is also evidence of erythromycin and clindamycin resistance among this C. Avidum. Depending on the infection site and antimicrobial susceptibility, the length and type of antimicrobial treatment must be chosen. A prognosis is usually positive with properly administered medication.

C. avidum is also sensitive to some other antibiotics, including

  • β-lactams. 
  • Fluoroquinolones.
  • Macrolides.
  • Rifampin.

 In case of severe infections that occur after debridement surgery, a long-term antibiotic prescription is needed to kill the residual bacteria.

Cutibacterium Avidum Gram Staining

The Gram stain is a typical method that is used to differentiate between two big groups of bacteria based on the distinct cell wall elements that each group possesses. The Gram staining method colors these cells either red or violet, which enables the technician to differentiate between Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative groupings.

Gram-positive bacteria have cell walls that contain a significant quantity of peptidoglycan, which is what maintains the crystal violet dye contained within the cells. Gram-negative bacteria, on the other hand, have a red stain because their peptidoglycan wall is weaker and does not hold the crystal violet during the decolorizing process.

 To identify Cutibacterium avidum, the conventional Gram staining method is used. Bacteria are fixed on a slide and dyed with crystal violet. Iodine is applied on the slide to generate a compound with crystal violet, which Gram-positive bacteria retain better. The Gram-negative bacteria are then made visible on the plate by washing it with acetone or alcohol. The decolored Gram-negative bacteria are then stained pink or red on the slide by the counterstain safranin. Cutibacterium avidum is a Gram-positive bacteria, as evidenced by the color of its appearance, which is dark blue or purple.

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